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Another Interesting Leak: A Second NASA Scientist Tells Us That ‘Somebody Else’ Is On The Moon




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We live in a strange world, and as Neil Armstrong once said, there are "great ideas undiscovered, breakthroughs available to those who can remove one of the truth’s protective layers."

NASA Scientists & What They Say About The Moon

Multiple NASA personnel have made some pretty shocking claims about the Moon. George Leonard, a NASA scientist and photo analyst who obtained various official NASA photographs of the Moon, many of which he published in his book titled Somebody Else Is On The Moon, is just one of these personnel.

Although the photos are small in size and their resolution is not up to today’s standards, they show details of original prints which were huge. Leonard published the identifying code numbers of the photos in his works to back up their source...

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Tags: astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, astronomy, science, NASA, aliens, UFOs, space, space science, science, breaking news, Earth, Earth science, science, Most of us learned in school that the planets are in the following order: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and (until 2006) Pluto.

As a result, you could be forgiven for thinking that our closest planetary neighbor is Venus. In some ways, you’d be correct: Venus comes closer to Earth than any other planet in the Solar System. Similarly, its orbit is closer to ours than any other. However, you would be incorrect in another sense. At least, that is the argument put forward in an article published in Physics Today.

Engineers from NASA, Los Alamos National Observatory, and the US Army’s Engineer Research Development Center created a computer simulation to calculate Earth’s average proximity to its three nearest planets (Mars, Venus, and Mercury) over a 10,000-year period. The model shows that Earth spends more time closer to Mercury than either Venus or Mars due to the way the planets align during their respective orbits.

"In other words, Mercury is closer to Earth, on average, than Venus is because it orbits the Sun more closely," the authors explain.It’s not just Earth, after all. Further calculations show that all seven planets (except Mercury) spend the majority of their orbits closer to "the Winged Messenger" than any other planet. Seems impossible? This is how they figured it out.

The findings are based on a technique known as the point-circle method (PCM), which is essentially a mathematical equation that takes two planets’ orbits as circular, concentric, and coplanar, and calculates the average distance between them as they orbit the sun.

"From the PCM, we noticed that the distance between two orbiting bodies is at a minimum when the inner orbit is at a minimum," the authors explain.

"That observation results in what we call the whirly-dirly corollary (named after an episode of the cartoon Rick and Morty): For two bodies with roughly coplanar, concentric, circular orbits, the average distance between the two bodies decreases as the radius of the inner orbit decreases."

"It’s clear from this corollary, and from the table, that Mercury (average orbital radius of 0.39 AU), not Venus (average radius of 0.72 AU), is the closest planet to Earth on average." (AU is astronomical units, the distance between Earth and the Sun.)

They created a computer simulation that tracked the positions of all four planets over a 10,000-year period and calculated the average distance between them to test their hypothesis. The results of this simulation differed by a staggering 300 percent from traditional calculations (determined by subtracting the average radius of the inner orbit from the average radius of the outer orbit). However, they differed from the PCM calculations by a negligible 1%.

It found that the average distance between Earth and Venus was 1.136 astronomical units (0.28 on the "old method"). In comparison, the average distance between Earth and Mercury was 1.039 astronomical units (0.61 on the "old method").

The hypothesis has yet to be submitted to a peer-reviewed paper and will no doubt be put through a thorough cross-examination by experts in the field, but the authors have already noted some possible uses for their newly-devised PCM equation.

"With the right assumptions, PCM could possibly be used to get a quick estimate of the average distance between any set of orbiting bodies," the authors write.

"Perhaps it can be useful for quickly estimating satellite communication relays, for which signal strength falls off with the square of distance. In any case, at least we know now that Venus is not our closest neighbor – and that Mercury is everybody’s."

Wolf Cukier, a junior at Scarsdale High School in New York, got a two-month internship with NASA during his junior year. So he went to NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

His first task was to investigate fluctuations in star brightness acquired by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, or TESS, as part of the Planet Hunters TESS citizen science initiative. (The citizen science initiative lets people who do not work for NASA to assist in the discovery of new planets.)Cukier found a new planet only three days into his internship. NASA made the announcement on their website, after validating the teenager’s work, submitting a paper co-authored by Cukier for scientific review, and announcing the finding of the planet, now known as "TOI 1338 b," during the 235th American Astronomical Society conference.

17-year-old Cukier said: "I was looking through the data for everything the volunteers had flagged as an eclipsing binary, a system where two stars circle around each other, and from our view eclipse each other every orbit. About three days into my internship, I saw a signal from a system called TOI 1338. At first I thought it was a stellar eclipse, but the timing was wrong. It turned out to be a planet.

I noticed a dip, or a transit, from the TOI 1338 system, and that was the first signal of a planet. I first saw the initial dip and thought, ‘Oh that looked cool,’ but then when I looked at the full data from the telescope at that star, I, and my mentor also noticed, three different dips in the system."

TOI 1338 b is 6.9 times the size of Earth (between Neptune and Saturn) and is situated in the constellation Pictor, approximately 1,300 light-years distant from Earth. TOI 1338 b is the first circumbinary planet discovered by the TESS system, which means it circles two stars. The two stars orbit each other every 15 days, and one of them is 10% the size of the Sun. TOI 1338 b and its two stars form what is known as an "eclipsing binary."

According to NASA, circumbinary planets like TOI 1338 b are difficult to discover since standard algorithms might misinterpret them for eclipses, which is why interns like Cukier are crucial.

After making history, the high school senior is now considering his college options. Princeton, MIT, and Stanford are his top three options.

Karl Schwarzchild proposed black holes in 1916 as a solution to Einstein’s field equations for his Theory of General Relativity.

By the mid-twentieth century, astronomers were using indirect methods to detect black holes for the first time, observing their effects on surrounding objects and space.

Scientists have been studying supermassive black holes (SMBHs) since the 1980s, which are found at the center of most massive galaxies in the Universe. In April 2019, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration released the first image of an SMBH ever taken.

These observations provide

an opportunity to put physics laws to the test under extreme conditions and gain insight into the forces that shaped the Universe.

According to a recent study, an international research team relied on data from the ESA’s Gaia Observatory to observe a Sun-like star with strange orbital characteristics. Due to the nature of its orbit, the team concluded that it must be part of a black hole binary system.

This makes it the closest black hole

to our Solar System and implies that our galaxy contains a sizable population of dormant black holes.

The research was led by Kareem El-Badry, a Harvard Society Fellow astrophysicist with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) and the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA).

He was joined by researchers from CfA, MPIA, Caltech, UC Berkeley, the Flatiron Institute’s Center for Computational Astrophysics (CCA), the Weizmann Institute of Science, the Observatoire de Paris, MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, and multiple universities.

The paper that describes their findings will be published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

El-Badry explained

to Universe Today via email that these observations were part of a larger campaign to identify dormant black hole companions to normal stars in the Milky Way galaxy.

"I’ve been searching for dormant black holes for the last four years using a wide range of datasets and methods," he said.

"My previous attempts turned up a diverse menagerie of binaries that masquerade as black holes, but this was the first time the search has borne fruit."

El-Badry and his colleagues relied on data obtained by the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Gaia Observatory for this study. This mission has been measuring the positions, distances, and proper motions of nearly 1 billion astronomical objects, including stars, planets, comets, asteroids, and galaxies, for nearly a decade.

The Gaia mission

aims to create the most accurate 3D space catalog ever created by tracking the movement of objects as they orbit the center of the Milky Way (a technique known as astrometry).

El-Badry and his colleagues examined all 168,065 stars in the Gaia Data Release 3 (GDR3) that appeared to have two-body orbits for their purposes.

Their analysis found a particularly promising candidate, a G-type (yellow star) designated Gaia DR3 4373465352415301632 – for their purposes, the team designated it Gaia BH1. Based on its observed orbital solution, El-Badry and his colleagues determined that this star must have a black hole binary companion.

Said El-Badry: "The Gaia data constrain how the star moves in the sky, tracing out an ellipse as it orbits the black hole. The size of the orbit and its period give us a constraint on the mass of its unseen companion – about 10 solar masses.

"In order to confirm that the Gaia solution is correct and rule out non-black hole alternatives, we observed the star spectroscopically with several other telescopes. This tightened our constraints on the companion’s mass and proved that it is really ‘dark.'"

To confirm their observations

, the team analyzed radial velocity measurements of Gaia BH1 from multiple telescopes.

The spectra provided by these instruments allowed the team to observe and measure the gravitational forces influencing its orbit, similar to the method used to hunt exoplanets (Doppler Spectroscopy). These follow-up observations confirmed Gaia BH1’s orbital solution and the presence of a companion of about 10 solar masses in its orbit.

According to El-Badry, these findings could constitute the first black hole discovered in the Milky Way that was not discovered through X-ray emissions or other energetic releases:

"Models predict that the Milky Way contains about 100 million black holes. But we’ve only observed about 20 of them. All the previous ones we’ve observed are in ‘X-ray binaries’: the black hole is eating a companion star, and it shines brightly in X-rays as that material’s gravitational potential energy is turned into light.

"But these only represent the tip of the iceberg: a vastly larger population may lurk, hidden in more widely separated binaries. The discovery of Gaia BH1 shines early light on this population."

If confirmed, these findings could indicate that the Milky Way has a large population of dormant black holes. This term refers to black holes that do not emit bright disks, bursts of radiation, or hypervelocity jets from their poles (as is often the case with quasars).

If these objects are ubiquitous in our galaxy

, the implications for stellar and galactic evolution could be profound. However, it is possible that this particular dormant black hole is an outlier and not indicative of a larger population.

El-Badry and his colleagues are looking forward to Gaia Data Release 4 (GDR 4), which will include all data gathered during the five-year nominal mission, to verify their findings (GDR 4).

This release will include the most up-to-date astrometric, photometric, and radial-velocity catalogs for all the stars, binaries, galaxies, and exoplanets observed.

The fifth and final release (GDR 5) will include data from the nominal and extended mission (the full 10 years).

"Based on the BH companion occurrence rate implied by Gaia BH1, we estimated that the next Gaia data release will enable the discovery of dozens of similar systems," said El-Badry.

"With just one object, it’s hard to know exactly what it implies about the population (it could just be an oddball, a fluke). We’re excited about the population demographic studies we’ll be able to do with larger samples."

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This FanPost was written by a member of the Gaslamp Ball community and does not necessarily reflect the views of the Gaslamp Ball staff or SB Nation.